Chapter 7 - Introduction, Gale/Gayle Families of America
IMMIGRANTS WITH THE GALE/GAYLE SURNAME began arriving in America during the early 1600s. By the time of the Civil War their descendants had settled in each one of the ORIGINAL 13 COLONIES and today are spread throughout the United States.

IN THE CHAPTER LISTING BELOW, each of the headings indicate family lines that begin with charts of the earliest known ancestor as Roman Numeral I, followed by descendants in numerical order until the Civil War period and sometimes beyond. Profiles of individuals who left descendants follow the charts in the same order.

We begin in Chapter 8 with early Gayle families of Gloucester County, VA, including Matthew Gayle, an immigrant from England, who was granted land there in 1672.

ELIAS GAILE (Living 1623-24), servant bound to Rev. Patrick Copeland. (See Above)

JOHN GALE (Living 1624) was living in James City and Prince George Counties in 1624.

WILLIAM GALE (Living 1695) appeared in King & Queen County in 1695.


CHARLES GALE (Living 1699): Charles Gale came to Middlesex County, Virginia, in 1699.

HENRY GALE (?? - 1706) died in Middlesex County where the register of Christ Church Parish notes, "Henry Gale departed this life May ye 2nd and was buried May ye 3rd, Anno Domini 1706."

SIMON GALE, BRICKLAYER (Living between 1702 and 1748) was named in a land transaction in 1702
when he acquired 100 acres of land from John West of Middlesex County.

"This indenture, made the 2nd day of November, in the year of our Lord God 1702 and in ye first year of the Reigne of our Sovereign Lady Anne of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, between John West of ye county of Middlesex of one part and Simon Gale of ye County of Gloucester, Bricklayer."

"Witnesseth that for sume of Twelve pounds sterl. money ye said John West hath granted unto said Simon Gale all that Plantation and one hundred acres of land whereon I now live which said plantation and land formerly conveyed by Thomas Loe to my Father, Nicholas West, late deced as by Deed of Sale dated ye fifth day of Jany. 1675-6."

"In presence of us, Paul Thilman, Wm. Jones, Jno. Lantherne, John E. West, Sarah S. West".

"Att a court held for the County of Middlesex the 6th day of September, 1703:
John West acknowledged his deed and it was admitted to record. Sarah West, wife of said John West, relinquished her right of dower in ye sd land to ye sd Gale…..Test Edwin Thacker"
(Sparacio, Deed Abstracts of Middlesex County, Va., 1694 - 1703)

In the early 1700s the name Simon Gale appears in Gloucester, Middlesex, Albemarle, Surry and Brunswick County, the latter formed from parts of Surry, Isle of Wight, and Prince George Counties. The name later appears in Bertie County, North Carolina. Since Simon is an unusual name in the Gale family in the colonies, these references probably pertain to the same person.

On 9/28/1728 Simon Gale of Surry County was granted 500 acres of land in Brunswick County on the south side of the Meherrin River on the Indian line and William Edwards' line. In December of 1732 a deed between John Bradford and James Douglas of Brunswick County for 100 acres of woodland on the south side of Fountain's Creek referenced Simon Gale's upper corner. The acreage was part of a patent to John Bradford with the remainder owned by Simon Gale. John Powell, William Powell, Margret (sic) Moore and John Bradford witnessed the transaction on 6/7/1733. In April of 1733 a deed was recorded between Simon Gale and Batt Peterson, both of Brunswick County, for 920 acres in Brunswick County on the south side of the Meherrin River, on both sides of Fountain's Creek, and at a corner tree on the land of John Scott. Witnesses were Burrell Brown, Matthew Perham and Matthew Flood and the deed was acknowledged by Simon Gale on 7/5/1733.

In 1733 Simon shows up in North Carolina where he was a petitioner with other inhabitants of Bertie County to Governor Burrington. In 1735 he witnessed the will of Thomas Whitmell, dated 11/26/1735 and recorded 12/13/1735. Other witnesses were Gerrard Van Upstall and Mary Cannady.

Son Thomas Whitmell plantation where I now live on the Kesia River,containing 360A as by reference to a deed to me by Gardner also 320a on Buck, part of a survey by patent dated 4-1726, half my stock of horses, etc., negroes Jupiter, Catoe, Peter and half of the stock used in Indian trade. Wf Elizabeth Whitmell all household furniture. Dau Martha Whitmell 15# at her marriage or when she is of age, also half my trading stock used in the indian trade, as well as the labor of negroes Mingoe, Bess, and Peter. Second son Lewis Whitmel 150A adj land devised to my son Thomas and lands of John Gray, 320 A on Buck Swamp, being the other half of land devised to my son Thomas also negro Bristoll, one fourth of the increase of negro Bess and one fourth part of negroes Phillis and Penney. Infant son who shall be baptized William one fourth part of negro Bess and Negroes Phillis and Penney. Dau Elizabeth Pollock one shilling Dau Sarah Whitmell 30# wf negro Bess Dautha martha negro Mingo, one fourth of negroes Phillis and Penney, on fourth of the increas of Bess. Dau Mary Whitmell the first child of Negro Bess and one fourth part of negroes Phillis and Penney. Ex: wf, son Thomas, John Gray. (Will 11/26/1735 - 12/13/1735, Bertie County Land Grant Book 4/22)

The Register of Albemarle Parish mentions both Simon and Christopher Gayle. In 1739 A Register of the birth of Negroes and Mulattoes and Slaves recorded in the register listed LYDDA, a female, born on 10/6/1739. The owner was given as Dr. Kenneth McKenzie and the informant supplying the data was Christopher Gayle. In 1740 Simon Gale, Mary Sammond and Mary Battle were named as godparents of Amy, daughter of John and Mary Battle, born 6/1/1740 and christened 9/21/1740. The last mention found of Simon was in 1748 when he appeared in land grants in Granville, District, and North Carolina.

JOHN GALE (Living 1673) appeared in New Kent County on 11/4/1673 when Jno. Prosser and Tho. Pannell were granted 5200 acres between the Mattapony (sic) and Rappahannock River for the transport of 104 persons, including Jno. Gale.

HUGH GALE (Living 1653) received a grant on 2/18/1653 with Francis Emperor and Edward Morgan of 1000 acres in Lower Norfolk County on the south branch of the Elizabeth River at the head of Cyprus Creek or Pussel Point Creek adjacent to Peter Sexton. The grant was made for the transport of 20 people including Jno. Marshall, Jno. Resbury, Jno. Trent, Fra. Barbar, Jno. Brooke, Tho. Bonner, Mr. (or Wm.) Wolly, Jno. Hues, Tho. Simpson, Tho. Gover, James Miller, Richd. Hitchcock, Cha. Flemin, Jno. Barnett, Nicho. Kent, Geo. Smith, Math. Lenn, Richd. Downes, Tho. Godby, Jno Rawles. On 4/26/1684 the land was deserted and passed to George Newton and Richard Church.
JOHN GALE (Living 1640) and John Radford were granted 200 acres in Lower Norfolk County on 8/11/1640. The tract was located on the Western branch of the Elizabeth River adjacent to lands assigned to him by John Slaughter and Thomas Browne. Four persons were transported including Gale, Tho. Tross, John Williamson, and Oliver Gibbons.

MARY GALE (Living 1673) had an illegitimate child by Portuguese servant Nicholas Silvedo who was convicted on 12/7/1674 as being the father. Silvedo was committed to the custody of Sheriff John Culpeper but later escaped. Meanwhile, the child was kept by William Harman, a Negro, for 13 months and in September of 1673 it was noted that one Jane Harmon was the wet nurse for the child. (Northampton County, Virginia Court Orders and Minutes Relating to Free African Americans and Indians, 1654 - 1795; Orders, Wills, Etc. 1674 - 1679, microfilm No. 27) Mary Gale appears again on 9/28/1694. Whereas a male child of Mary Gale, servt. to Mr. John Kendall, of which Nicholas Silvedo was convicted of being the reputed father, was the seventh of December 1674 placed to Charles Guildon of the County until 24 years of age, said child known by the name of Jephtah, now attains to 21 which also appeared by this County's records, set free. [A Mary Gale was brought to Northampton County on 10/3/1678 with seven others by Thomas Kendall, who was granted 400 acres of land.]

GEORGE GALE (Living 1664) was named as a headright on a 1000 acre grant to George Bryer and Richard Lawrence on the north side of the Rappahannock River in what was then Rappahannock County on 4/23/1688. The property, originally granted to Charles Grymes in 1657, was described as being on the north side of the River, southwest at the head of Fleets Creek and on the north side of Rapphanocke Towne. Headrights included Wm. Furmis, Wm. Matter, Fra. Pope, Richard Browne, Edie Kegg, Jno. Teague, George Gale, James Gardiner, Robt. Huston, Joyce Smith, Ann Jordan, Toby Culgy, Jeffry Hewes, Wm. Tix, Jno. Harrold, Rich. Browne, Ed. Loyd, Fra. Jones, Nich. Rice and Eliz. Thomas.
JAMES GALE (Living 1688) was transported with seven others by Edward Thomas, who was granted 714 acres on the south side of Rappahannock River on 4/23/1688.
JOHN GALE (Living 1666) was named on 10/26/1666 when Major Jno. Weire was granted 3000 acres on the south side of the Rappahannock River on the southeast point of a great island and described as part of 2000 acres granted to Mr. Epaphroditus Lawson for transport of 60 persons, including John Gayle. (Lancaster County, Pat. Book 6/159)

JOHN GAYLE (Living 1664) was named as a headright on 3/23/1664 on a grant of 1464 acres to Robert Alexander, John Alexander, Jr. and Christopher Lund. The land was described as being on the south side of Attapin (sic) Creek Dam beginning at a corner tree of George Weading, Daniell White and Miles Phillips, and extending west by south, etc. to the north side of a small run that falls into Appamattocks (sic) Creek, etc. Headrights included 29 persons named as Roger Korman (or Norman), Ann Phillips, Edward Massey, Henry Coplyn, Charles Perches, John Ellis, Robt. Franck, Lawrence Tomkins, Thomas Webb, Joyce Axell, Wm. Butler, Robt. Cockerell, Thomas Wilkenson, Daniell Liss, Thomas Moore, Wm. West, Rachaell Hailes, Richard Huff, John Gayle, Thomas Butler, Henry Vincent, Ellen Browne, Thomas Lund, Jno. Walton, Maurice Smith, Wm. Hills, Samll. Mottershead, Lucy Stratton and Judeth Beach. (Westmoreland, VA. Patent Book 5/447)
THOMAS GALE (Living 1652) was living in Westmoreland County.

HENRY GALE (Living 1690) was a resident of Hampton Parish, York County, Virginia. On 6/3/1691 Henry witnessed an order to appoint Joseph King of Virginia, Gentleman, as attorney for John Brumskill of London, Mariner, According to the COLONIAL ENTRY BOOK, l682 - 95; Minutes of Assembly, an entry dated 4/13/1692 notes a payment from "The publique Dr. to Henry Gale of Hampton Parish in York Co. for nine days service, being imprest by the Rt. Honorable, the Lt. Governor's warrant to transport the county's powder to ye several places appoynt, per th said warrant, at l5 lbs of tobacco per day".

EDWARD GALE (Living 1624) "gentleman and adventurer" of London, listed in Virginia Company Records.
ISAAC GALE (Living 1655), Tailor, an indentured servant from Keinton, Wiltshire, was brought to Virginia about 1655 bound to Robert Pitt, merchant of Bristol.
JAMES GALE (Living 1636) settled near the Elizabeth River in 1636 with his wife Jane.
JNO. & ELIZABETH GALE: 1673: Came to Virginia.
JOHN GAYLE: 9/14/1674: Came from Bristol to the Virginia plantations bound to Patrick Spence for four years.
MARY GALE: 1667: came to Virginia from Bristol on the ship
Charles and was apprenticed to William Parker for four years.
ROBERT GALE: 1770: Came to America from Scarsdale, London

CHARITY GALE: 9/24/1659: (Spinster) of Ilchester, Som., indentured servant bound to Wm. Dace for four years, shipped from Bristol to America
ELIZABETH GALE: 1682 - 86: Bound to Benjamin Johnson in America
FRANCIS GALE: 1782 came to America.
GEORGE GALE: 3/1756: Came to America from Dorset
JANE GALE (Living 1732) came to Maryland or Virginia ca. 1732-33 on the ship Smith. On 11/15/1736 she sued Attorney Richard Smith for her freedom.
JOHN GALE: 1724: Came to America from Wiltshire
JOHN GALE: 1728: Came to America from Somerset
JOHN GALE: 1742: Came to America from Devon.
JOHN GALE: 1774: Gentleman of Gloucestershire, age 25, sailed from London on the ship
JOSEPH GEALE (sic): 1685: Rebel sentenced for transport for waging war against the King.
MARY GALE: 5/7/1662: Bound to Anselm Smarte for four years on 5/7/1662.
MARY GALE: 3/1/1675-76: Mary Gale, servant of Lt. Col. Baldry, petitioned for freedom stating that Robert Baldry had given her freedom on his death bed.
PETER GALE: 1662: David Davis of Bristol was bound to Peter Gale, master, for four years in 1662.
ROBERT GALE: 1770: Came to America from Scarsdale, London
THOMAS GALE: 3/1759: Came to America from Wiltshire
WILLIAM GALE: 1752: A horse thief sentenced to 14 years came to America from Shropshire.
Direction to be giuen to ye Gouernor to cause John Burrows to make sattisfaccon to Robert Gaile."
Vppon the humble Peticon of Robert Gaile shewinge yt wheras some 13 years past hee furnished out one John Burroes to Virginia wth monny, Armor, Apparrell, beddinge, Copp, Victuall and other necessaries; And since that time allso hath sent him fewe supplys of whatsoever the said Burrows write to him for.

In consideracon wherof the Peticoner was to have they moytie of all profitts made and raysed in Virginia by the Industry of the said John Burros as by his bond now presented to be read might appeare, Itt is therfore accordinge to the peticoners requeste ordered that dyreccon should be given to the Gouernor & Counsell of State in Virginia to call the said Burros before them and to examine his touchinge the pmises; And if the information shall appeare to be true, then to compell him the said Burros to make the peticoner due sattisfaccon accordinge to equitie and good cnfydence.
(Robinson, Conway, Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Virginia Company of London, 1619 - 1624, Vol. I)
IN 1606 THE VIRGINIA COMPANY sent the first colonists to Jamestown in three voyages known as the FIRST, SECOND, & THIRD SUPPLIES. THE FIRST SUPPLY, a group of 80 passengers and crew commanded by Captain Christopher Newport, departed in October of 1607 from Gravesend, London, on the John and Francis, arriving in Jamestown on January 2nd. THE SECOND SUPPLY left England in July of 1608-09 on the ship Mary and Margaret, again commanded by Newport. Arriving in October the ship carried 28 gentlemen, 14 tradesmen, 8 Germans and Poles, and 2 women, Mrs. Thomas Forrest and her maid, Anne Burras. One of the tradesmen was JOHN BURRAS/BURROWES whose venture was financed by one ROBERT GAILE, who filed suit against Burrowes in 1621 and later against the estate of William Tracy of Berkeley Hundred. [One ROBERT GALE (Living 1635), merchant, was to buy gold for the East India Company as the factor for Mr. George Francklyn. According to the Calendar of Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1635-1679, Vol. I, it was noted that Robert Gale and William Christmas were accepted as securities for pepper. Whether this is the same Robert Gale is not known.]
DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD, the British economy was augmented by a huge labor force of indentured servants, convicts and slaves that served British subjects throughout their colonies. By 1619 many African slaves had arrived in Virginia, and between the years of 1640 and 1680 countless others were serving on vast sugar plantations in the British Caribbean. While many white laborers in the south found the climate inhospitable and had little resistance to tropical diseases, African slaves were used to working in warm climes. They became the chosen workforce in southern locales and often provided more than just labor. In South Carolina, for example, rice plantations flourished since African slaves born in rice-producing regions brought that knowledge to America.

In 1660 Charles II helped found the Royal Adventurers into Africa, under whose auspices English ships transported great numbers of slaves from Guinea on Africa's Gold Coast to Surinam and Barbados. Records of Negroes arriving between 1680 and 1740 at the Port of York [Yorktown, Virginia] show that over 70% came specifically from Port Guinea and were sold to planters in York and Gloucester Counties. By 1711 the South Sea Company was chartered and began importing slaves to the Spanish Indies, speculating on huge profits. Ships owned by these companies sailed back and forth along a triangular trade route between England, the Americas and other British colonies in Africa, India and the Caribbean known as "The Golden Triangle," so-named for the enormous amounts of money made from the shipments of goods and slaves. A portion of this route, the dreaded "Middle Passage", was an arduous journey for the slaves, many of whom died on the voyage.

Over time expansion of the slave trade led to a rise in shipbuilding that soon developed as a major industry in many port towns. Plantation vessels, many of them built by Negroes who were sometimes trained by black Bermudian ship carpenters, traveled frequently to West Africa to procure additional slaves along with products for English subjects. Fortunes were made and lost as merchant mariners sailed ships laden with cloth, utensils, salt fish, molasses, timber, indigo, sugar, rum and slaves back and forth between the mother country and her colonies. Hoping to cash in on this new prosperity, merchant mariners in the colonies developed powerful partnerships, employing family members who operated in English port towns that included London, Bristol, Liverpool and Whitehaven, Cumberland.

Members of the Gale family entered both the slave and convict trade in Whitehaven, carrying slaves primarily to the colonies in Maryland and Virginia where in 1730 thirty thousand slaves served Virginia masters alone, a figure that represented 26% of the population. The slave trade flourished and a goblet was commissioned in Whitehaven to commemorate the launch of the slave ship King George in 1763. The creator of the goblet, William Beilby of Newcastle on Tyne, decorated it with the Royal coat of arms of King George III and on the opposite side a hand painted sailing ship with the words "Success to the African Trade of Whitehaven".

In America, Connecticut and Rhode Island prohibited further importation of slaves in 1774, but merchants continued to bring them to other colonies. In 1776 the Quakers prohibited slavery among members of their faith and the Vermont Constitution prohibited the practice in 1777, followed by Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Even as early as 1794 the United States government prohibited the manufacture, fitting, equipping, loading or dispatching of any vessel employed in the trade of slaves. Despite all these attempts, the years from 1798 through 1808 marked the greatest importation of African slaves into America. In 1807 both the British Parliament and the United States government banned slave trade in the Atlantic and in 1810 Britain entered into an agreement with Portugal calling for its gradual abolition in the South Atlantic. Other attempts at abolition were made by the governments of France, Spain and the Netherlands, including treaties and proclamations of emancipation, but the practice continued despite a ruling in 1820 declaring slave trading an act of piracy, punishable by death. After numerous upheavals and slave rebellions slavery was finally abolished in 1865 by the 13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, leading to the Civil War. Even so, slave ships continued to sail and the trade expanded in the areas of Cuba and Brazil until it was finally abolished in the latter country in 1888.

It is noteworthy that at least two families associated with the Gales were advocates of emancipation. In New Jersey, the father-in-law of JOHN S. GALE (LIVING 1800s) was the Reverend JAMES WASHINGTON WOOD (1813 - 1884), father of John's wife Mary. Wood was a Presbyterian pastor in Deckertown, New Jersey between 1839 and 1845, in Chester, NY from 1845 to 1862, and in Allentown, PA from 1865 to 1883. While in Chester he was associated with POLLODORE SEWARD in the underground railway, helping many slaves escape to Canada. In Canada SAMUEL GALE (1783 - 1865), a great advocate of freedom for slaves, denounced anyone who fostered the practice. Born to unknown parents in 1783 in St. Augustine, Florida Samuel's father was a native of Hampshire, England. Samuel himself was educated at Quebec, was admitted to the bar in 1808, and became a judge in 1831. He died in Montreal on 4/15/1865.
Slave House, Rock Hall, Maryland, 1936
( Scenes, Slave Settlements and Houses&theRecord=67&recordCount=84; Vlach, John M.,
The Afro-American Tradition in Decorative Arts,
Cleveland Museum of Art, 1978, fig. 82, p. 132, from Library Of Congress,
Prints and photographs Collection, Image Reference NW0104)
MEMBERS OF THE GALE/GAYLE FAMILIES engaged in the slave trade included shipbuilders and masters and owners of vessels bringing slaves to the Colonies. As an aid for African Americans who are researching their ancestors, slaves found during research have been listed on subsequent pages under the Gale/Gayle family groups who owned them. In many cases their surnames were the names of their owners, as was the practice of the time. Some became freedmen, former slaves who were released legally by either manumission (freedom granted by owners) or emancipation (freedom granted to a larger group).

Kunta Kinte, the slave of Alex Haley's book, "Roots" and known as Toby by his owners, was owned by two brothers of the Waller family, WILLIAM and JOHN WALLER (12/23/1741, Spotsylvania Co., VA - 7/4/1802, Marion Co., SC), the latter a preacher of the early Baptist religion in Virginia. He was purchased at Annapolis, MD, in the fall of 1767 and lived on the plantation with his wife Belle and daughter Kizzy. The Waller Plantation was located between VA 646 and VA 647 2 1/2 mi. S of Snell and 2 1/2 mi. N of Marye where the Rivers Mat and Ta join to form the Matta River. The site was said to be on the south bank of the Matta River, according to David Holmes of the Spotsylvania County Historical Society who researched it. [The Free Lance Star, Vol. 93, No. 149, Fredericksburg, VA, 6/25/1977] AN ORIGINAL SLAVE BLOCK in the area (known as Pea Ridge) still rests directly on Rt. 738 (Partlow Road between the Partlow Post Office and Mt. Olive Church Rd (Rt. 658).

John Waller was an associate of MATTHEW GALE JR. (1727 - ca. 1812) of Spotsylvania County
[SEE CHAPTER 9] and HENRY GOODLOE, and all three were prominent in the early Baptist religion in Spotsylvania. Baptist services were often conducted at Goodloe's Plantation, on the north side of Campbell's Creek between US Route One and Blanton's Post Office (1953 names), in Spotsylvania County. The site was featured on 2/1/1977 on the ABC evening news in connection with Haley's book. Descendant German Goodloe sold the tract, known as Stanhope, in Caroline County in 1836 to George Burrus, son-in-law of John and Elizabeth Pitt Gayle, John a descendant of Matthew Gale.

Residents of Spotsylvania and Caroline Counties, mainly aristocrats who were predominately Church of England, opposed the new religion, and the Caroline County Court sent Lieutenant Anthony Thornton and his constables to raid a service at
Goodloe's Plantation. Preachers John Waller and Henry Goodloe were arrested, and the congregation ordered to disperse. When they refused to do so three of their leaders, Andrew Ross, Thomas Kelley and MATTHEW GALE were taken into custody. All three were fined and later paid £5 sterling to the county as restitution. The Baptist movement continued and in 1772 the Baptists of Caroline County petitioned the House of Burgesses for freedom of worship under the Toleration Act.

HOULDER HUDGINS, an associate of the Gayles, appeared on the Gloucester County Tax List of 1782 with 390 acres of land and 15 Negroes. In the 1810 Mathews County, Virginia Census he is listed as owning 86 slaves. By the time of his death in 1815, he owned 811 acres of land in Mathews County in addition to acreage in York County, Elizabeth City County, Middlesex County, and Gloucester County, Virginia. His will notes that he will "lend to my son Houlder Hudgins five hundred acres of land of the tract on which I now live, including my mansion house during his life" (WB 1, pg. 25) In the Will he also bequeaths 69 slaves to various family members and mentions 21 of these slaves by name. (Mathews County Courthouse, WB 1/25)

In 1806 an attorney in Richmond, Virginia, named George Keith Taylor frequently represented enslaved clients seeking freedom from their masters. One suit involved one JACKEY WRIGHT and her master, HOULDER HUDGINS of Mathews County, grandfather of MARTHA FRANCES HUDGINS GAYLE, wife of JOHN GAYLE also of Mathews. Hudgins had purchased Jackey Wright in 1795 for £55 from the estate of SIR JOHN PEYTON. At the time, she was about 15 years old. Peyton was baronet of the manor known as
Isleham in Kingston Parish and a wealthy slaveowner. In 1783, according to census records, he owned 138 slaves, then an enormous number, and Jackey's mother was among them. It is surmised that Jackey may have been born at Isleham, a nearby plantation.

At some point, Houlder began proceedings to sell Wright and two of her infant children. To this end, he engaged the services of one Richard Cox, "a negro trader." Cox planned to transport the Wrights out of Virginia to one of the more Southern States where they would be sold. They got as far as Petersburg where Wright somehow lodged a legal complaint against Hudgins and Cox. She maintained that she and her children were illegally enslaved because of her Indian ancestry and asked for "a writ of ne exeat" - which she received - preventing Cox from taking her outside the jurisdiction of the local court. She also asked for permission to sue for her freedom without official court costs. This was also granted.

Interestingly, genealogy was the basis for Wright's argument for freedom. She maintained through her attorney, George Keith Taylor, "that she is the daughter of PHEOBE WILSON, who is the daughter of BETTY MINGO, the child of an Indian woman named FRANCES MINGO…" In Wright's claim to Indian extraction, there was a proper presumption of freedom for Indians being lineally descended from a free Indian woman. At the time, Virginia law maintained that "all children shall be bond or free, according to the condition of their mothers…"

Hudgins' attorney, the famous Edmund Randolph, did not deny Wright's Indian descent. Instead, another genealogy was offered. Deponents for Houlder Hudgins maintained that Jackey Wright was not the daughter of Phoebe Wilson, but of one PHOEBE WRIGHT, daughter of "HANNAH," who was the daughter of "BUTTERWOOD NAN," a slave and an Indian on her paternal side. This argument inferred "that since Butterwood Nan's Indian genealogy was attributable to her father, then there was no need to presume that [her] mother was an Indian, nor - by extension - to presume a free status for Jackey Wright and for her children…"

Meanwhile, Wright also asserted that she "and her children have no mixture of Negro blood in their veins, and [that they] have countenances as fair as those of any white persons" - thus presuming freedom on racial grounds. Eighty year old George Wythe - a signer of the Declaration of Independence - was the judge in the case, heard in the Richmond Chancery District Court. His written opinion has not survived except in documents resulting from a review of the case by the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. These documents attest to Wythe's ruling based on his view that the youngest "was perfectly white, and that there were gradual shades of difference in color between the grand-mother, mother and grand-daughter," (all of whom were before the court). The ruling obviously had controversial implications, a fact borne out by the appeal by Hudgins and his attorney to the Virginia Supreme Court. (Beutler, Keith; "Let Justice Be Done Though the Heavens Fall: Emancipation Cases in the Early American Republic, 1781 - 1806," Masters Thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 1999, courtesy of Keith Beutler)

Kate Coles & two Minor family sons at Gale Hill
Gale Hill, (
The following selected information on slaves of the Minor Family in Albemarle County, Kate Coles and "Mammy Patty" was taken mainly from the book titled, "Gale Hill, the Story of an Old Virginia House," by Jasper Burns. ( The Minors intermarried with the family of Matthew Gayle of Gloucester and Spotsylvania Counties in Virginia. [SEE CHAPTER 9]

GALE HILL was owned by the Minor family who descended from John Minor of Topping Castle in Caroline County, VA who patented land on the north fork of the Rivanna River around 1735. The descendants who lived at Gale Hill included Dr. John Minor (4/2/1791 - 4/4/1849) and his wife Jane Bell Minor (9/26/1796, Edinburgh, Scotland - 1/28/1835, Gale Hill) and William Wardlaw Minor (8/22/1812 - 5/16/1887) and his wife Mary Waters Terrell (12/6/1814 - 1/2/1894. Both William and Mary Terrell Minor were buried at Gale Hill. The house burned to the ground in 1930 but is well remembered by those who lived there. A sketch of the slave burial ground at Gale Hill can be found at the website of Jasper Burns who wrote the history. (

One of the Minor family slaves born at
GALE HILL was KATE COLES (1/7/1857 - 1943). Her mistress, MARY TERRELL MINOR, taught her to read and write. From about 1894 until her death in 1943 she wrote letters to members of local planter families with whom she had become friendly. Included in the correspondence were recounts of her life and family and a memoir written in 1936 entitled"The Generations of Gale Hill." Coles and her husband Jeff moved to Proffit, VA. Kate's letters are in the collecton held at the University of Virginia. (The Letters of Kate Coles - 1894 to 1943, University of Virginia, Alderman Library, Special Collections Department) Pictured below are Kate Coles and "Mammy Patty."
MAMMY PATTY (Living 1897), shown here with Margaret Lee Minor.
THE HOMES PICTURED HERE BELONGED TO ASSOCIATES OF THE GALE/GAYLE FAMILES IN VIRGINIA. Photographs are my own unless otherwise noted. Additional information and photographs from others are requested, and all photos will remain the property of the submitter and may not be reproduced, either in print or electronically, without written permission. Submitted information is subject to editing in keeping with the format of this site. Use your "edit/find" button to search and please CONTACT ME if you would like to add additional information or photographs.

AS A BRIEF INTRODUCTION, generally speaking early Virginia homes mirrored others in North America built during the period. Their styles included Post-medieval English, Dutch Colonial, French Colonial, Spanish Colonial, Georgian and Early Classical Revival. Following the Revolutionary War, mainly between the 1790s and 1820s, the Adam style, named for Scottish architect Robert Adam (1728 - 1792), and the Federal style were both introduced. The more prominent Adam style, closely related to the Georgian style, is mainly recognized by a more elaborate front door with fanlight and pilasters. At the introduction of the Federal style, the design of porches and entries changed, solid stone lintels were introduced, and fan-like transoms were used over doors and windows.

More informal was the generic "folk" house, a one-room-deep linear plan dwelling with an external chimney that included the two-story I-house, two rooms wide and one room deep. This traditional British folk design is particularly common in the Tidewater regions. Since brick wasn't as common in the area most homes were built of wood and, as expected, many have long succumbed to the ravages of fire, weather and time. Additionally, the purer examples of these early styles have been lost to alterations over the years. Building materials and practices were combined and recycling timber and hardware salvaged from earlier houses and ships was a common practice, resulting in difficulties with establishing construction dates.
Window, Old Cow Creek Mill, Gloucester, VA
BEWDLEY was built ca. 1730 by Major James Ball (1678 - 10/13/1754), son of Captain William Ball and first cousin of Mary Ball, mother of George Washington, whose grandmother, MILDRED WARNER WASHINGTON, married COLONEL GEORGE GALE of Whitehaven, England, and Somerset County, MD. [SEE CHAPTER 18] James Ball married three times, first in 1699 to Elizabeth Howson (?? - 1/22/1704-05), secondly to Mary Conway Daingerfield (?? - 9/15/1730) and thirdly to Mary Ann Bertrand in 1742. He served as a Burgess from Lancaster County and was a vestryman of Christ Church. At his death he left the house to his son, Colonel James Ball II (1718 - 1789), who left it to his son, Colonel James Ball III (1755 - 1825), both members of the Virginia House of Delegates. Captain James Kendall Ball (Living 1865), a member of the 9th Virginia Cavalry, CSA, owned the house during the Civil War. The area's first steamboat visited the wharf here.

The original house burned in 1917 and was replaced by the current five-bay frame dwelling, clad in weatherboard. It is said to be the only house in the United States with two sets of dormers, three in each set, protruding from the high-pitched roof. The home originally had four massive chimneys, one at each corner of the house, and the present house was built in similar fashion, though without the chimneys, sometime after the fire.
Bewdley, Road front view, 2010
Photo, Gayle N. Mandell, 2010
Photo, The Valentine Richmond History Center
In the area of Hudgins in Mathews County is the home known as Dragon's Cove, built on part of a 1000 acre grant to Hugh Gwynn in 1642 known as Gwynn's "grant in the Main," meaning mainland. Situated on a point of land overlooking Hill's Bay and Gwynn's Island, the tract was the site of the Revolutionary War Battle of Cricket Hill. My own ancestor, CAPTAIN ROBERT GAYLE, was encamped there, and several Revolutionary War round balls were found on the grounds and are in my possession. [SEE CHAPTER 10]

Dragon's Cove was constructed in 1876 by Edward W. Mariner who owned the property at the time. It was later owned by Luther and Sarah F. Clarke and their daughter, Margaret Clarke Stevenson. Much later and after many renovations, it became the home of this writer during the early 2000s. A slave house, shown below, predated the residence and was renovated in 2003 as a guest house. During renovation, several old ship's timbers were uncovered bearing original axe marks.
THE HIDE-A-WAY, on Tabbs Creek off East River, is a mystery in terms of its origins. Owner Chris Sheridan thought that it was the old CULLY/CULLEY house, but land tax records of 1846 do not reflect that. She cited an old survey map and stated, "In comparing maps we know that our Hide-A-Way is not 'the old house' [mentioned in the survey]. There is a possibility that in 1736 it might have been Edm'd. Singleton's widow's house, since "old house creek" and "old house" appear to be in the right place…"

Records show the first building on the one acre site was built circa 1846 by Alpheus A. White. In the photo the center portion of the house is two stories with story-and-a-half additions on each side, all clad in weatherboard and covered by gable roofs. In 1974 Chris Sheridan wrote a letter to the neighboring Brunson family, stating, "When we bought it the wing on the right (as you look at the photo) was already gone and the two-story section was in very bad shape… We do know that Zadoc Cully and his sister are buried near our
Hide-A-Way. The copy of a copy of the old photo enclosed is the expanded Hide-A-Way about 1900, we think." When Zadoc Cully died on 2/17/1870, George Haywood owned the house. It was later restored by the Sheridan family to become a story-and-a-half house measuring 16' x 16.'

Sheridan's letter also referenced Robert Thomas, grandson of Celey Thomas. She identified the woman in the photo as "probably" Mary Miles Thomas Conklin (1878 - 1920), wife of Benjamin Thomas, and the child as "probably" Mary Thomas Gayle (1905 - 1972), "probably" the mother of Dora Gayle.

The Culleys, Gayles and Singletons were associated by the marriage of Ralph Culley to Mary Singleton on 11/6/1775 and of Thomas Gayle to Mary Culley in 1777.

The Hide-A-Way, Photocopy, ca. 1900s, courtesy of Lena Brunson
Dragon's Cove, Built 1876 (Photocopy, Collection of Gayle N. Mandell)
MIDDLESEX COUNTY is situated at the eastern end of the Middle Peninsula area of Virginia. It is bounded on the north by the Rappahannock River, on the east by Chesapeake Bay, on the southwest by the Piankatank River and Dragon Run Swamp and on the northwest by Essex County. Although settled around 1640, it did not become a county until its official formation in 1669 from a portion of neighboring Lancaster. The county seat is in Saluda. The town of Urbanna, the only incorporated town in Middlesex, was established in 1680 as a port for shipping agricultural products.
GLENLOCHAN, on Urbanna Creek, was originally built in 1784 on one of 12 lots owned by Mathias Gale (Aft. 1705 - 1748) of Somerset County, Maryland [SEE CHAPTER 18], and was Lot #6 on the 1747 Towles Map of the town or Urbanna. According to tradition, it was named by a Scottish sea captain who was so impressed with its setting that he gave the owners, members of the Palmer family, a bronze sun dial that remains in the garden. Later owners included Jonathan Denison, Hugh and Thomas Iverson, Dabney Miller, Augustine Owen, Alfred Palmer, Alfred C. Palmer, Eliza Palmer Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Barton Palmer and Mr. and Mrs. Charles Price. As of 2012 it has been remodeled and is still under private ownership.

The original house was dismantled in 1907 and some of the salvaged material used to build the present structure. The old foundation is still visible just a few feet away in the front yard and a salvaged brick, dated 1784, was placed in the foundation of the present house. The original kitchen served the house until 1972 and in 1978 was still attached to the dwelling by means of a colonnade. Dependencies include two original buildings, used successively as a slave quarters, schoolhouse and storage room. A Colonial-era burial ground was located on the hill overlooking the creek and a neighbor remembered that grave markers were still there in the late 1950s. Barton Palmer moved all the Palmer graves to Christchurch in the early 1960s and no visible markers remain.

Glenlochan, 1907, Photo 2010
HAMPSTEAD is estimated to have been built at Remlik ca. 1750 by a member of the Thacker family. Records of Christ Church Parish in 1751 refer to Colonel Thacker's Mill Dam. Captain Henry Washington, a cousin of George Washington, purchased the property, and it descended to his son, Thacker Washington. It was first mentioned in Henry Washington's 1763 will, and according to family lore George Washington spent several nights in the house on his way to Williamsburg.

Hampstead was later acquired by the Muse family beginning with Hudson Muse, his sons Thomas and Elliott Muse, and the latter's wife, Betty Taylor Muse. It was then sold out of the family and subsequent owners followed.

The two-story, five-bay, Colonial style brick dwelling was built over an English basement and has a traditional hall-parlor-passage plan. Original first floor brickwork consists of walls laid in Flemish bond and two interior end chimneys laid in common bond. Originally shingled, the second story and gambrel roof are clad in aluminum siding and roofing material. On the first floor the central entrance is covered by a small covered porch with two windows on each side. Five hipped-roof dormers on the second floor are located directly above the first floor bays and four small windows, two on each side of the porch stair, peer out from the basement. In 1902 a three-story addition replaced a two-story extension similar to the original house. The cemetery at
Hampstead, dating to 1763, is located near the house.

Coincidentally, on 1/21/1768 "Henry Heath, Gent., Practitioner of Physick, in Fredksbg.," conveyed to to Charles Yates, a Fredericksburg merchant also doing buisiness with the family of Matthew Gale, Lot 20 in the town of Fredericksburg. Signers were Hudson Muse, James Duncanson, John Stewart, William Templeman on 8/3/1768.

Hampstead, Photo 2010
THE LAWSON HOUSE on Locklies Creek at Hartfield was owned by Thomas Young Lawson who married (1) Susan Pierce Fleet and (2) Sallie Anne Fleet. It descended to Thomas' son,William Henry Lawson, and William's daughter and son-in-law A. E. & Nellie Lawson Meredith. Susan Pierce Lawson, daughter of Thomas and Sallie Anne Fleet Lawson, married Edward Henry Whitehurst, the great-grandfather of this writer. [SEE CHAPTER 20]. Later owners were Fuller & Elizabeth C. Robinson.

The house was built during the mid-1850s by bachelor Robert E. Garrett on land acquired from his father, Edward Garrett. There is no interior stairway to the second floor and Mrs. William Henry Lawson once said, "only a bachelor would have built such an inconvenient house." (Gray, Ryland, Simmons) From the kitchen a smaller hyphen joins a tiny room where "Miss Susie" Lawson taught school. According to local lore, one student arrived by rowing across the creek.

The 2½-story frame dwelling with two end chimneys has identical plans on each floor. A center hall connects the porches with one room on each side and an open interior staircase was built from the second level to the attic making one of the rooms smaller than the one below. All four rooms have low fireplaces with wide mantel facings. Two tiny attic windows peer our from either side of the chimney. A 1½-story wing is the present kitchen and is connected to the main house by a hyphen and entered by a passage from one of the downstairs rooms. An enclosed stairway from this section leads to an attic above with no entrance to other parts of the house. From the kitchen a small enclosed porch leads to what used to be the old kitchen. The end chimney here has been removed and the room is used for storage. A large exterior chimney, with crumbling masonry, remains on the road-side of the main house. First and second floor porches extend the entire length of the dwelling on both sides, the lower ones with brick flooring. The roof, with its interesting pitch, steeper over the main house than on the porches, has been covered with modern shingles. As of 2014, the house unfortunately is decaying badly.

Lawson House, kitchen & early school room, Photo 2003
THE PALMER HOUSE was built in Hartfield on land patented in 1690 by Thomas Dudley and William Elliott who conveyed 722 acres to Major Robert Dudley, whose family was associated with MATTHEW GAYLE of Gloucester and Spotsylvania Counties. [SEE CHAPTER 9] When Dudley died in 1701 it passed to his eldest son, Robert Dudley II. Subsequent owners included Augustine Smith (Living 1716), one of the "Knights of the Golden Horseshoe." Smith and others accompanied Lt. Governor Alexander Spotswood on his expedition up the Rappahannock River Valley into the Blue Ridge mountains and the Shenandoah Valley to expand the Virginia territory. At the end of the journey Spotswood gave each man a gold stickpin in the shape of a horseshoe, hence the name. The property then passed to Augustine Jaquelin Smith, Presley Cockrill, and David Palmer who built the house in 1804 on property then consisting of 186 acres. The northern chimney retains bricks inscribed "D & N Palmer - 1804."

The original portion of the dwelling, now attached to a much larger addition that served as the main house, was a 1 ½-story clapboard structure, now clad in siding, measuring 18' x 32' and built over an English basement. The steeply pitched roof once held three dormers on each side and massive chimneys served six rooms, two on each floor and two in the basement. Part of the land is still farmed and outbuildings are used to store trucks and equipment. A cemetery north of the house contains the graves of Robert V. Revere and his friend John R. Lumpkin, who married Lucy C. Palmer, one of John Palmer's daughters. Both men fought for the Confederacy in Company H of the 55th Virginia Infantry. According to local legend, the Palmer family took great pride in naming their cattle. One of them, a steer named Bob, wandered off into a swampy area along the road where he drowned. The Palmers affectionately named their road after the steer and, even after the state took over the road system, the name "Bob's Hole Road" was retained.

Palmer House, original portion, Photo 2009
The original brick structure was laid in Flemish bond over an English basement with a gable roof extending out over a covered porch. An early interior end chimney remains on the east end, flanked by two windows similar to those on the west. Windows on the first floor have diagonal board shutters and basement windows are all below the water table. The basement, like the main floor, is divided by a brick partition and retains traces of early brick paving. On the main floor a door in the northeast room served as a loading entrance and there is evidence of a receiving platform, hoist and a door leading into the loft. A loading door on the east side of the porch foundation provided a second access to the cellar and is flanked by two windows with vertical bars. On the first floor are two rooms, of about equal size, separated by a brick wall. A passage, added later, provided access between the rooms. A stud partition further divided the east half, creating a corner room on the southeast. The northeast room is thought to have been the store where an attendant occupied the southeast corner room. Walls and ceilings are finished with white-washed plaster and wide pine floors were laid in tongue and groove fashion. At the rear of the building a hallway and stair hall are finished with diagonally laid beaded boards and simple trim. Steps lead to the unfinished loft. Here the fireplace on the east side was rebuilt, but the hearth remains. The loft was used during the 19th & 20th centuries as a sleeping area. During the early 20th century the warehouse was owned by members of my family and both my mother and aunt remembered sleeping in the loft when they visited. Property owners include William Churchill; Richard Walker; James Reid; James Mills; James Mills & Co.; Overton Cosby & Co.; James Ross & Co.; William H. Purkins; Lizzie Healey; W. H. Berry; Walter H. Ryland; W. C. Kennard; Thomas G. & Lilla Palmer Jones; R. Finley Gayle, Sr. [the great-grandfather of this writer]; and Gayle family heirs who sold the building to the APVA. [SEE CHAPTER 10]
THE TOBACCO WAREHOUSE, also called the James Mills Storehouse, was built around 1762 on a hill overlooking the tobacco rolling road on Urbanna Creek. It is one of several public warehouses built by that time on creek lots at the foot of Virginia Street. A storehouse for tobacco existed in Urbanna as early as 1714 and the "Old Warehouse" was probably a storehouse and store with an inspection office and quarters for a tobacco inspector. The 1720 estate inventory of William Gordon (?? - 11/14/1720) includes the notation, "In the Store" with a list of about 500 items. According to an APVA report, Urbanna's Tobacco Warehouse was probably built about 1763-67 on Lot #29 on the Towles Map of 1747. As of 2010 it is used as an information center for the town of Urbanna.

The Tobacco Warehouse, Photo 2007
WATERVIEW FARM, also called THE ISLAND, was built in 1830 at Regent between Locklies and Mill Creek. It is not far from the Lawson House (above). The construction date is evidenced by a dated and initialed brick placed in the chimney and later moved to the foundation. The first known owner of the property was Thomas E. Churchill who sold to Peter Robinson. Ben F. Robinson, credited as the builder of the house, sold 350 acres known as The Island to EDWARD GARRETT. His son, Collin P. Garrett, sold the place to John C. Clarke and it passed to his son, Morton Emory Clarke and then to Elizabeth Clarke Worthington.

The two-story, five-bay, frame dwelling with a center-hall plan was built over an English basement. A two-story pedimented porch with Victorian style trim was probably added at a later date. Two exterior end chimneys laid in Common bond exhibit obvious repairs and the roof is covered by newer cedar shakes. On the first floor two rooms are separated by a wide center hall with stairs leading to three bedrooms on the second floor and an attic with two rooms. Worn steps from the hall descend to the English basement with 16" thick brick walls and original plaster. The dining room and kitchen were originally on this level and the latter had a 6' deep potato cellar in the floor covered by a wooden trap door. Both rooms were floored with patterned soapstone, the basement ceiling replaced and modern plumbing installed. A one-story addition built in 1948 serves as the present kitchen. A screened porch at the back faces Locklies Creek. Dependencies include a smokehouse, corn crib and barn, entered through a door with 36" strap hinges and a 10" x 14" handmade wooden lock. According to family tradition, when Collin Garrett sold the property he requested the lock. Clarke refused and Garrett kept the key in retaliation. A carriage house that once stood in the yard was later moved to Morton Clarke's house for use as a garage.

Waterview Farm, 1830, Photo 2009
Overlooking Urbanna Creek, Rosegill was originally a brick 1 ½-story dwelling with a center hall plan covered by a gable roof with four interior brick chimneys. Footings of part of the original core are ballast stones and under the hall is an original vaulted wine cellar. Around 1770 the dwelling was enlarged by one-room additions at both ends and a 12' wide hall added across the riverfront with stairways at each end. Despite restoations, the 1770s trim was retained in a few rooms. An 1801 Mutual Assurance Company policy noted that the 11-bay brick dwelling had a Dutch roof [gambrel] and two one-story brick wings. By 1805 the house was connected to its numerous dependencies, built in a line with the dwelling and stretching 466' from end to end, by a "covered way part brick and part wood." (VDHR) A wooden piazza was added on the land front and by 1815 the covered ways were replaced by a brick wall.

In 1850
Rosegill was raised to two stories, the second story clad with weatherboards and the gambrel roof replaced by a gable roof. Some of the fireplaces were removed to allow for bathrooms and closets. In the 1940s one-story service wings were added to either end of the house and a one-story sun porch was built on the north side. In 1973 remaining dependencies included a six-bay wash house, used as a manager's house; the kitchen with its original fireplace with an 8' opening; a storage house, used as a garage; and probably a carriage house, laid in Flemish bond with the front wall removed to accommodate a garage opening. Other outbuildings included a 19th century frame smokehouse and a bake oven. The house almost burned in 1977 and the entire community rallied to save it.
ROSEGILL, on Urbanna Creek, was a tract of 3200 acres patented by Ralph Wormeley (?? - 1651) in 1649. It was inherited by Ralph's widow, Agatha Eltonhead Wormeley, who married Sir Henry Chicheley who was paying taxes on the property in 1654. The property then descended to Wormeley's son, Ralph Wormeley II, (1650 - 1703), Ralph Wormeley III, and the latter's nephew, Ralph Wormeley IV (1715 - 1790, who is credited as the builder somewhere around 1730-50. A brick on the east wall of the carriage house is inscribed with the initials "RW." It then descended to Ralph Wormeley V who had no male heir. He left the estate to his wife Eleanor Wormeley, who left it to her sister, Martha Roy. Thomas Boswell Roy inherited the property from his mother and sold it to Captain Thomas Bailey.

Ralph Wormeley II married (1) Catherine Lunsford, daughter of Sir Thomas Lunsford and widow of Peter Jenings, and (2) Elizabeth Armisteaad, d/o Col. John Armistead of Gloucester County. On 12/14/1686 Wormeley brought one WILLIAM GAILE (1672 - ??) to the Virginia Colony as a 13 year old servant to his wife Catherine. In 1707 both the Gayle and Wormeley families were living in Gloucester and Middlesex Counties in Virginia. [Although the relationship is not known, on 7/18/1763 one William Gale of Whitehaven sued John Wormley (sic) to recover damages].

Rosegill, Virginia Department of Historic Resources

Sarah Haynesworth Gayle, the first wife of Governor John Gayle of Alabama, kept a journal that frequently mentioned the family's slaves. She named ALEX, HAMPTON, HARRIET, HETTY, MIKE & HIS FAMILY, NANETTE, ROSE, and YELLOW JOHN. Called servants instead of slaves by Sarah, they were given a greater degree of freedom than many others in their circumstance. When one was about to be sold, he or she was allowed to find a new master instead of being put on the auction block. And she also endeavored to keep families together. At one time her husband was forced to sell most of the slaves, and Sarah expressed her desire to buy them back, particularly "MIKE and his family." She wrote, "How little are my feelings, in reference to this matter, understood. No ideas enter my head of cotton, or of corn, or of money - but simply the longing to say once more my father's old servants are mine again."

Later she wrote, "The rise in Negroes has defeated my darling calculation of possessing the old set of Negroes…I had foolishly hoped to own them this winter, and feel the disappointment as keenly as if I had reasonably hoped it. Poor Mike beset me every time he saw me, and is a miserable Negro in his present situation." In a letter to John she wrote, "Mike came to see me on the old subject. He says he often started to speak to you, but his heart failed; but, if we moved anywhere 'Don't think of leaving me, for I should be a lost man,' and the poor fellow was really choked into silence."

From Sarah's journal writings it is apparent that her kind spirit led often to an inability to control her "servants" and her relationship with them seemed to be a source of constant concern. "Between HAMPTON'S carelessness and HETTY'S almost perpetual laying up, I am in a bad way to have affairs attended to. ALEX is a good boy, but without doubt the most idle and inattentive I ever saw…NANETTE, with capacity for being a good servant, is too unfaithful ever to make one…They all know that I will not willingly do them an injustice, and would rather they should not be corrected where they did deserve it…than that they should receive chastisement where they did not. Excessive indulgence has ruined them…Even Mike, whom I have prized so highly, has become indolent and inattentive, anxious to leave work at every excuse, goes to the village at night andd begs every public meeting as a holiday…My parents were uniform and strict in their management of the servants. I was not allowed to use tyranny or injustice of any sort towards them…When I used improper language to them they went to my mother for redress, but, on the other side, if commanded what was proper and reasonable, they dared not hesitate…But I no longer feel confident that my orders will be obeyed; and often, when they are, the obedience is accompanied by murmuring, sour looks and sometimes even by surly language. "

In a moving account of the death of one of MIKE'S cousins, she wrote, "Mike's cousin HARRIET died…at the age of thirteen, and if moral rectitude, warm heartedness, faithfulness, and a modesty that not all of a different color possess, entitle one to a marble monument I am sure her grave should have had one long since. She was cheerful and very intelligent, anxious to learn to read and the finer kinds of needle work, and to do it she would sit over her book and her needle till all else were asleep in the house. She was extremely affectionate in her disposition and she loved my children with whom she was a great favorite… Sarah (John and Sarah's oldest daughter) stood fanning her a few hours before she died. Harriet patted her curly head and said 'God bless your heart.' She knew she would die, so, a little before the end came she waved her hand toward Mike despairingly and impatiently told him 'Go make my coffin.' She begged me not to leave her, but told her mother to go home, she could do no good. She spoke affectionately to all her friends, but seemed more anxious to have her master and myself near her than anyone else…I hope it was no degredation to rain tears over this faithful young creature, whom I had raised from the time I had carried her in my arms, a child myself. I put the shroud on with my own hands... "

Sarah also wrote that a letter from a relative [Maria] related the death of YELLOW JOHN, "the faithful friend and servant of Mr. Gayle's family thro' his whole life. We were all much affected and many tears flowed to his memory." She also mentioned ROSE, nurse to her son Richard Haynesworth, who contracted lockjaw resulting from infection from a wood splinter, and how she and other family members attended Rose prior to her death. "When I saw that Death had the mastery, I laid my hand over her eyes and in tears and ferver prayed that God would cause us to meet in happiness in another world. I know, at that solemn moment, that color made no difference, but that her life would have been as precious, if I could have saved it, as if she had been white as snow."
[The Journal of Sarah Haynesworth Gayle, 1827 - 1835]

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SLAVE DWELLINGS IN AMERICA have largely disappeared, with few remaining. Slave quarters were sometimes laid out in areas of the main house, primarily in attics, basements or above kitchens, which were usually detached from the main house. Detached slave cottages were typically constructed on land surrounding the larger plantations and were one-room huts, sometimes called hovels. Initially they were wooden post-in-the-ground structures; however, by the mid-1700s most were small log cabins with dirt floors, sometimes windowless. Pits, used as fire-pits or to provide storage, were dug in the floor and chimneys were fashioned of wood and mud. Furniture was sparse, sometimes provided by plantation owners from cast-offs and sometimes made by the slaves themselves.

Further south, particularly in Florida, slave dwellings called coquina huts, "with floor space ranging from about 277 to 320 square feet," were built of tabby, a crude mixture of lime, oyster shell, ashes, sand and water. Some were square and some rectangular, "perhaps early versions of the shotgun house linked with some West African cultures." [The shotgun house is a narrow rectangular dwelling, usually no more than 12' wide, with doors at each end.] These structures generally had "a door facing the street, one or two window openings, shutters over the windows, since glass was uncommon, roofs covered with wooden shingles or boards, chimneys made of brick, tabby, or sticks and mud." The yard might have had vertical board or stick fencing and was "packed hard with dirt and swept clean with a broom." (Trinkley) On Kingsley Plantation, located on Fort George Island near Jacksonville, Florida, are remnants of over 20 of these huts, arranged in a semi-circle around the main house. One has been reconstructed, but the timber frames, cedar roofs, and wooden shutters of the others have long since rotted in the Florida climate. Only portions of the tabby walls remain. When I visited the site many years ago, upon entering I remember feeling a palpable chill, despite the Florida sun. SEE KINGSLEY PLANTATION at WIKIPEDIA.

By 1850 slave dwellings were built mostly of wood and were an average of 14' to 16' by 20.' One or two window openings were provided, covered by shutters since glass was uncommon. Roofing was of wooden shingles or boards and chimneys were constructed of brick, tabby, or sticks and mud. In the latter part of the 19th century plantation owners who continued to own slaves began taking better care of them, if only to improve their image in the eyes of the abolitionists. Slave dwellings were raised off the ground and larger quarters were built, usually side-by-side with a shared chimney. Oftentimes, these larger quarters housed more than one family and, in a very few instances, were constructed of brick. In some cases the dwellings were evenly spaced along a wide street on the plantation in "European fashion," perhaps in an attempt to reduce the spread of disease.
UPON DISSOLUTION OF THE VIRGINIA COMPANY IN 1624, administration of the colonies fell to the Crown. Land patents were issued to persons qualifying as planters until about the time of the Revolutionary War and, in a method known as the headright system, acreage was awarded to those who paid transportation costs for others, including friends and family members. The patentee appeared before a county court with proof of the number of persons imported to the colony at his expense. He was then awarded a certificate or "right" and his property was surveyed. Many individuals with the Gale/Gayle surname received grants in various colonies, a number of which still exist among county land records. The immigrants below are listed by area.

The earliest immigrant to Virginia found was SARAH GALE BOND CHEW who arrived in 1623. Others who have no obvious connection to those profiled in the chapters are listed below by counties.

EDD. GALE: 1655: Transported to Charles City County by Howell Pryse, who was granted 1550 acres.

JOHN GALE (Living 1623) appeared on the list of those living in Virginia at "Hundred Island" on 2/26/1623. On 2/16/1623/4 John Gale, alias Harvey, alias Galloway, served under Master John Burton and was pardoned on 2/1656, at Flouerdieu Hundred. (Lists of the Living and Dead in Virginia) Gale is said to have been a servant to Abraham Peirsey (ca. 1585 - 1628), Treasurer of the Colony during the period 1618 to 1622 and member of the House of Burgesses and of the Council in 1622 to 1624. Peirsey purchased the plantations of Flowerdieu Hundred and Weyanoke from Sir George Yeardley in 1624. .

WILLIAM GAILE (1672 - ??) was brought to the Virginia Colony on 12/14/1685 by Ralph Wormeley as a 13 year old servant to his wife Katherine, making his birth year 1672. In 1707 both the Gayle and Wormeley families were living in Gloucester County.

I. DANIEL GALE (Living 1649) was named as a headright on 5/29/1649 on a grant to Richard Kemp, Esqr. Secretary of State for the Colony of Virginia, who received 3,500 acres on Mobjack Bay, in the vicinity of the Ware River in Gloucester County. RICHARD KEMP, Esqr., Secry. Of State for this Colony, 3,500 acs., on Mockjack Bay in Ware River, 29 May, 1649, p. 174. According to two surveys thereof made 3,000 acs. Lyeing towards the narrow of the sd. River, beg. At Snare Cr. Etc. crossing the mouth of Creans Cr. Etc., which tract is called
Hunting Dale. The other 500 acs. Beg. At a small cr. Dividing it from John Terry, joyning land of Dictoris Christmas, running due E. nye St. Michaells Cr. Called by the name of the Meadowes. Due for trans. Of 70 pers. Into the Colony, assigned him by Capt. Ralph Wormeley, viz: Mrs. Agatha Wormeley, Co: (Col) Xtopher. Wormeley, Mrs. Mary Wormeley, Mr. Ralph Wormeley, Mr. William Littlewood, Richard Lewis, Robert Cheaning. William Buttler, Teague Bryan, Doctor French, John Blacke, Robert Brown, 1 Negro woman, 1 Negro boy, 12 Negroes; Nicholas Clarke, Nicholas Jernew, Ryon Fletcher, Symon Byle, Robert Huett, A french man, John Losway, Cornelious ____, 4 Negroes; Hugh Gwyn, John Thomas, Henry Marshall, Thomason a Maid, Jenkin Williams, Morris Prower (or Procier), (?), Henry Hewes, William Watts, Charity his wife, Daniell Gale, Nicholas ____. (Mason) Based on the connection to Richard Kemp, it is this writer's opinion that Daniel Gale of Gloucester was an ancestor of Daniel Gale, blacksmith, who settled in Charleston, South Carolina.

II. DANIEL GALE (LIVING 1700s) OF CHARLES CITY, SOUTH CAROLINA, was probably a descendant of Daniel Gale (above), although the date and place of his birth are unknown. Extant records show that he was a blacksmith who settled in Charles City, later Charlestown, South Carolina, in the early 1700s. He owned a plantation of 35 acres in "Charles Town Neck" and was a member of the Parish of St. Phillips. He married HANNAH (UNKNOWN) and had daughters, Mary and Katherine.

Both Daniel and Hannah left wills. Daniel's, dated 8/12/1723 and recorded 11/22/1725 in Charles City, South Carolina, left his "Brick House, wherein I now Dwell, in Charles City & Port fronting the Bay" to his daughter Katherne Beale, wife of Captain Othniel Belae, to whom he also left seven slaves, named below. He gave 100 pounds to his daughter-in-law Mary Kemp. His plantation "upon the Neck adjacent to Charles City and Port together with all the remainder of my personal estate" was bequeathed to his wife Hannah, who was sole executriz. (WB 1724-25, p. 264) Hannah's will, dated 11/26/1735 and recorded on 10/12/1739, left a 35 acre tract on Charles Town Neck, along with personal property, to her daughter, Mary Watson. Daughter Katherine Beale was given "my Brick House wherein I now dwell fronting the Bay in Charles Town with all the land adjoining ..." (WB 1736-40, p. 336) Hanna also made bequests to her graddaughters, Hanna Watson, Ann Clemens Watson, Mary Watson, Hanna Beale and her grandson, John Beale. Hanna noted that all her household goods be equally divided between her daughters. Hannah also left 50 pounds to the poor of the Parish of St. Philips, Charles Town. Captain Othniel Beale and William Watson were made executors.

SLAVES NAMED IN THE WILLS OF DANIEL & HANNAH GALE. CHARLES CITY, SC: DANIEL GALE: Left to daughter Catherine: Negro man BRUMMINGHAM, Negro man BOSTON, Negro man TONY, Negro woman PATHENA & CHILD AMARITA, Negro boy JEMMY, Negro girl SATIRA. Will of Daniel Gale, dated 8/12/1723, recorded 11/22/1725) HANNAH GALE: Left to daughter Mary Watson: Negro woman BETTY & DAUGHTERS PHILLIS & GUBA & SEVERAL UN-NAMED (Will of Hannah Gale, dated 11/26/1735, recorded 10/12/1739.)

III. MARY GALE (?? - ??) married William Watson and had children Hanna, Ann Clemens, and Mary Watson.
III. KATHERINE/CATHERINE GALE (?? - 1774) married Captain Othniel Beale (1688, Marblehead, Massachusetts - ??), son of Captain John Beale and his wife Martha, on 3/25/1722. Beale, a sea captain in Charleston,became a prominent merchant in that region. He is mentioned as a Colonel, as President of the Royal Council, and as Captain of the ship
Algerian Rover. He married Katherine Gale on 3/25/1722 and had two known children. The family were members of St. Phillips Parish where the register indicates an association with the families of SAMUEL GALE and JOHN GALE of Sumpterville, South Carolina, and William Gale of Savannah, Georgia.
Captain Othniel Beale & Wife Katherine Gale Beale
IV. JOHN BEALE (ca: 1735 - 1805) married (Unknown) and had two children, Catherine (?? - ??), who lived with the Bull family at
Ashley Hall, and Mary Hannah (Aft. 1774 - ??)
IV. MARY HANNAH BEALE (11/6/1725 - 10/28/1795, St. George's Parish, Middlesex, England) was born at St. Phillip's Parish where her birth was recorded. On 8/17/1746 at St. Phillip's Parish she married William Bull, Jr. (9/24/1710,
Ashley Hall, South Carolina - 7/4/1791), Lt. Governor and Acting Governor of South Carolina. Bull remained a Loyalist, left with the British in 1782 following the Revolutionary War and died in London. He was the son of William Bull I (1683, Ashley Hall, SC - 3/21/1755, Sheldon Hall, SC) who married Mary Quintyne (ca: 1685 - ??) and the grandson of Stephen Bull of Carolina.
Home of Captain Othniel Beale, Charleston, SC ( (
Dragon's Cove & Dependencies: Slave house (pre-dating the house), Ice Well and Corn Crib (Gayle N. Mandell, 2002)
In 1624 John Burrows married BRIDGET BUCK, daughter the Reverend Richard Buck, and Burrows later became the guardian of Bridget's sister, Mara Buck, born in Virginia in 1611. Around the same time, Burrows was granted 150 acres on the south side of the James River, just across from Jamestown, by Governor Samuel Argall. He called his plantation BURROWS HILL. It was part of s 2,000 acre tract known as FOUR MILE TREE PLANTATION, named by Argall in 1619 since a large tree on the land was four miles from the center of Jamestown. The tract was located east of a 1620 grant of 600 acres to Richard Pace known as Pace's Paine's that extended west to Martin's Hundred. Interstingly, it was here that the Indian known as Chanco, who was living with Pace at the time, warned Pace of the planned Indian massacre of 1622, thereby saving the lives of the family.

One of John Burrows' servants was ELIAS GAILE (sic) who appeared in James City in 1623-24. He was sent to Virginia via the ship
Southampton by Reverend Patrick Copeland, rector of the East India School, who was to found the first free school in the Colonies in Charles City. Gaile was to serve as an apprentice for the East India School for ten years, however, the project was abandoned following the 1622 massacre. Elias later appeared on the muster of Edward Blaney as a 14 year old servant to John and Bridget Buck Burrows, and in April of 1625 Burrows was ordered by the court to pay £100 of tobacco and a barrell of Indian corn to Mr. Copeland for the boy's service. In 1625 Elias still appears with Burrows, referred to as "gentleman," at his plantation, Burrowes Hill, on the south side of the James River. John Burrowes was murdered on 1/1/1627/8, stabbed by William Reade, a 14 year old laborer, at the house of Benjamin Jackson at Blunt Point in Warwick. Following his death, his widow sold the tract to one John Smith, who changed the named to Smith's Mount. Further information on Elias Gaile is unknown.

Returning to the voyages, in June of 1609 THE THIRD SUPPLY, a flotilla of nine ships, left England bound for Jamestown carrying supplies to the now starving colonists. The flagship
Sea Venture, commanded by Admiral Sir George Somers, carried 150 passengers and crew members. Notable among these were REVEREND RICHARD BUCK, Chaplain for the voyage, and his wife and children. Also on the vessel were SIR THOMAS GATES, Governor for Virginia; SIR GEORGE SOMERS, Admiral of the flotilla; WILLIAM STRACHEY, born in 1572 of Surrey, England, who was Secretary-elect of the Virginia Company and kept a journal of the voyage; SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY, who originally came to Jamestown on the Deliverance; and CHRISTOPHER NEWPORT, also a Captain of the Sea Venture. Also onboard was JOHN ROLFE and his young wife who died en route or shortly after reaching Virginia where Rolfe married Pocohontas in April of 1614. Reverend Richard Buck officiated at their marriage ceremony.

On 7/24/1609 the
Sea Venture was separated from her sister vessels by hurricane force winds and began taking on water. By July 28th, she was stranded between two reefs off the shores of Discovery Bay in the Bermudas, leaving passengers and crew to spend the next nine months marooned on one of the islands. Bent on escape the castaways spent the following months building two pinnances, the Deliverance and the Patience, from timber salvaged from the ruined Sea Venture. When work was completed the ships set sail for Virginia on 5/10/1610 arriving at Jamestown on May 23rd only to find that many of the settlers had died during the "Starving Time." On June 19th Sir George Somers volunteered to return to Bermuda aboard the Patience in an effort to bring supplies to the struggling colony. He arrived on the island with a small crew but died there in November of 1610. His nephew, Captain Matthew Somers, sailed the Patience to England to ask for assistance.

Meanwhile, crew members CHRISTOPHER CARTER, EDWARD CHARD and LT. EDWARD WATERS (11/30/1585 - 9/20/1630) remained behind to hold claim to the island. Nothing is known of Chard and Carter, but Edward Waters, described as an ancient planter, Gentleman and Armiger, was the son of WILLIAM WATERS (9/13/1557 - ca. 1588), whose family was associated with the Gales in both Virginia and Maryland. While exploring the island the three men found a piece of valuable ambergris, and rights of ownership led to dissention between Chard and Waters. Carter supposedly hid their weapons for fear the dispute would escalate. After the three were rescued, the ambergris was sent to England under the auspices of the newly formed Bermuda Company. Edward Waters went on to become a member of the council of Bermuda but left there for Virginia around 1618.
In the same year, 16 year old GRACE NEALE (1602 - 3/2/1682-3) came to Virginia in the ship Diana and married Edward Waters two years later in 1620 and had two children. The family appeared on the muster of the inhabitants of the College land in Virginia taken on 1/23/1624 as Edward Waters, aged 40, in ship Patience, 1608; Grace Waters, aged 21, in the Diana, 1618; William Waters (1623, Elizabeth City Co., VA - 7/29/1689), and Margaret Waters (2/1624, Northampton Co., VA - Aft. 8/20/1630), born in Virginia. Edward settled near Blount Point in Elizabeth City in the area known as Kecoughtan on 8/14/1624 where he patented 100 acres of land recorded on 10/20/1628 described as part of the "Strawberry bancks." (Hotten) This area is part of the city of Hampton, VA on Chesapeake Bay.

Waters was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1625 and later appointed Commander and Commissioner of the plantations in Elizabeth City County. He died at age 41 on a trip to England and was buried at Great Hormead, Hertfordshire on 8/22/1630. His will, dated 8/20/1630 and proved 9/18/1630, mentioned his wife Grace, his daughter Margaret, and his only son, William, to whom he left his land in Virginia. He stated that his property in England, Ireland, and Virginia be sold by advice of his brother, John Waters, of Middleham, Yorkshire. After his father's death William Waters was sent to Yorkshire and educated under the supervision of Edward's brother John. [Hotten's list of immigrants also included one John Waters, age 29, who came over in 1635 aboard the ship
Transport of London, Edward Walker, master.]

Following Edward's death, Grace Neale Waters married COLONEL OBEDIENCE ROBINS (4/26/1601 - 1662), of Northampton County on Virginia's Eastern Shore, and had seven children. Their family was associated with that of COLONEL GEORGE GALE of Somerset County, Maryland.
MATHEWS COUNTYwas formed from portions of Gloucester in 1791 and is the site of the original grant to Matthew Gayle in 1672. A number of old homes there are being chronicled in books on the topic by by the Mathews County Historical Society and others are listed with the Virginia Department of Historic Resources.
In 1738 Othniel's brother, Captain William Beale, died and was buried at Circular Church in Charleston. Here lies interred Cap. Wm. Beale, late Master of Ship 'Prince of Wales,' of Boston, N.E., who departed this life Dec. 5, 1738, aged 38 yrs. To whose memory this stone is gratefully dedicated, by his most affectionate brother, Othniel Beale, Esq., merchant in Charles town. Their parents were, Capt. John Beale and Martha, his wife of Marblehead, in New England. (The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, Vol. 28, 1999)

On 10/4/1769 Othniel was baptized at St. Philips Regis. By 1772 he was commander of the Charles Town militia and died a year later on 3/22/1773. He was buried in a vault at St. Phillips Church, Charleston, and a monument to him was erected there. His obituary, published on 3/29/1773 in the South Carolina Gazette, read,
Last Monday died in 85th yr. of age . . . the Hon. Othniel Beale, Pres. Of his Maj. Council, at which board he had seat upwards seventeen years past. He was born at Marblehead in N.E. and had his residence here upwards 32 yrs., which period he served his country with Reputation, in many public sta. was a useful member of the community, and acquired a very considerable Fortune. Katherine Gale Beale died a year later on 1/4/774.

The Beales lived in a 3-story brick house that still stands at 97 East Bay on what is now Charleston's "Rainbow Row" and is part of a suite of buildings built by Beale after a fire in 1740 destroyed most of the Charlestown waterfront. Beale owned a wharf in front of his house and during the 1740s was in charge of strengthening the city's fortifications along the waterfront in anticipation of an attack by the Spaniards. He drew up plans for the fortification in 1742.
Also of this family was WILLIAM BULL (1689 - 2/17/1755) who married Sarah Wells Bull (4/6/1694 - 1776) and had a son, THOMAS BULL (12/27/1727, Hamptonburgh, NY - 6/16/1801) who married (1) SARAH GALE (1727 - ??) and (2) MARY CARR/KERR (1731 - 1786). Thomas Bull left a will dated 7/12/1799 and proved 8/4/1801 in Goshen County, NY. He named his wife Sarah; daughter Jane Miller; daughter Sally Bull; Thomas of son Daniel; Easter, daughter of son Cadwalader; sons George, Cadwalader, Absolom (who is deceased), and property received from WILLIAM GALE.

Thomas' son, ABSALOM BULL (1/1/1754, Hamptonburgh, NY - 1791), later described as a "Gentleman" of Savannah, left a will dated 9/20/1791 directing that "... WILLIAM W. GALE of the said City of Savannah, Practitioner of Physic, do sell or cause to be sold, as soon as may be after my decease, all my Negroes to the best advantage of my Estate, except my winch SIRINO, to whom I now give her freedom; and request the said William W. Gale to send her with my little son Thomas to my Father. Also I request the said William to collect and dispose of the rest and residue of my Estate in the Country and vest the same in Specie and that he would transmit all the mony (sic) thus arising from the sale of all my property both real and personal, to my Father THOMAS BULL in the COUNTY OF ULSTER, STATE OF NEW YORK, aforesaid, to be by him equally divided among my children…Also I request that I may be buried in a decent, becoming manner; and that all half-pay officers to his Britanic Majesty may be desired to attend my funeral, & if consistant with the Laws and Customs of the Country that I may be buried under arms…(Georgia, Chatham County, Will Books A-E; 1789 - 1791) Witnesses were Ezra Plumer, Mary Plumer, J. Turner, C. Jackson, and Wm. W. Gale. (
Bull, Kinloch, Jr.; The Oligarchs in Colonial and Revolutionary Charleston - Lieutenant Governor William Bull II and His Family)

III. JOHN GALE (Living 1818 - ??) of Sumpterville, SC, was named in brother Samuel's will.
III. SAMUEL GALE (?? - 1818) is known to have had at least one brother, John, who was named in his will, dated 1/20/1818. Samuel Gale enlisted in the Fourth Regiment on 7/15/1778. He transferred to the Second Regiment under Captain Peter Horry and was wounded at Fort Moultrie on 6/28/1776. In 1790 Samuel appeared on the South Carolina Census, Georgetown District, St. George's Parish, with two sons and one daughter. In the same year, John Gale appears in the Charleston district, St. Andrew's Parish, with one son. On 5/6/1793 Edward Weyman, whose family was also associated with Samuel and John Gayle, married Catherine Turpin of the same parish. Samuel was involved in the slave tracde through a South Carolina factory at Rio Pongo in Western Africa and associated in commercial transactions with one Daniel Botifeur.

Samuel Gale died at the Weyman house in Charleston and in his will, dated 1/20/1818 and proved 1/24/1818, he left his estate to John Gale and members of the Weyman family. WILL OF SAMUEL GALE: State of South Carolina. In the Name of God Amen, I Samuel Gale of the City of Charleston &c born near Santee River in the State aforesaid Being sick and Weak in body but of soung mind memory and understanding do hereby make declare and Publish this my last will and Testament in manner and form following. That is to say I do hereby order and direct as follows. Imprimis I give devise and bequeath unto my brother Dr. John Gale of Sumpterville in this State Two thousand Dollars only of my Estate In the Second Place I give devise and bequeath unto my three friends Mrs. Catherine Weyman and her son Joseph Turpin Weyman and her daughter Mary R. Weyman the whold of the remainder of all my real and Personal Estate of whatsoever description of wheresoever situated which I am now Possessed of or may be at the day of my death in an equal Proportion of one third each. And I do hereby constitute and appoint my friends Joseph T. Weyman and Samuel Maverick as Executors and Catherine Weyman as Executrix to this my last Will and Testament hereby revoking and making Void all other Wills which I have heretofore made. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and Seal this Twentieth day of January in the Year of our Lord one thousand Eight hundred and Eighteen…..S. Gale (LS)

Signed Sealed and Published and declared to the the Last Will and Testament of the said Samuel Gale in the Presence of us who have hereunto Signed our Names as Witnesses in his Presence the Word "and" in the Twenty first Line from the top being erased Previous to signing." John Noble - William Royall Junr. - Wm. Hart

Proved before James D. Mitchell Esquire, O. C. T. D., 24th January, 1818. Qualified Catherine Weyman and Joseph Turpin Weyman, Executrix and Executor.
(Will Book E - 1807-1818)

The SAMUEL MAVERICK (12/30/1772, Charleston, SC - 4/30/1852) referred to in Samuel Gale's will was associated with the Weyman family who were also named. Maverick married Elizabeth Anderson (Est. 1783 - 9/27/1818, age 35, Montpelier, SC), youngest daughter of his stepfather, General Robert Anderson, in Pendleton District, SC on 10/5/1802. Maverick's father was also SAMUEL MAVERICK (??, Charleston, SC - ??) who married (2) LYDIA TURPIN (?? - 1/19/1803) in Charleston on 3/5/1772 and had five children between 1772 and 1780, all of whom died without issue with the exception of Samuel. Following the elder Samuel Maverick's death, Lydia married (2) to General Robert Anderson (Est. 1742 - 12/25/1812, age 70) of Pendleton District, S. C. Both were buried at Anderson's plantation on the Seneca River in Pendleton District, SC. His grandfather, again, SAMUEL MAVERICK (?? - ??) was a ship carpenter in South Carolina with his brother Benjamin on James Island where they had a shipyard. He married Catherine Coyer/Coier (1720, London - 10/3/1799, Charleston) in Charleston. The progenitor of this line was either JOHN OR SAMUEL MAVERICK (Living 1670) who were brothers who came to SC about 1670 by way of Barbadoes. John Maverick was elected to the New Parliament of SC in 1672 and owned Lot 43 in what is now the City of Charleston. For additional history of this family see

LYDIA TURPIN'S parents were CAPTAIN JOSEPH TURPIN (Est. 1729 - 7/4/1784, age 56) of Providence, RI and MARY BROWN TURPIN (2/20/1731, RI - 10/20/1796, Charleston, SC), daughter of ISAACK & EASTER BROWN. They were both buried in the Quaker Meeting Yard, on the east side of King Street, Charleston. Her grandfather was JOSEPH TURPIN (?? - ??), a merchant and ship captain of Providence, RI, Lydia's brothers were WILLIAM TURPIN (Est. 1754 - 1/21/1835, NY) who married a widow, Mary Savage, but had no children. He was a merchant in Charleston and Samuel lived with him as a shop boy and later worked with his uncle in the mercantile business as the firm of Wadsworth, Turpin and Maverick. After Mary's death, William moved to NY where he died. He was buried in the Quaker meeting burial Ground. Another brother was JOSEPH TURPIN (?? - 1784) who married an unknown woman, had three children, and died the same year as his father, both with Yellow Fever. His children were
CAPTAIN WILLIAM TURPIN of Greenville, SC; MARY TURPIN who married a MR. FOOTMAN; and CATHERINE TURPIN (Living 1818) who married EDWARD WEYMAN on 5/6/1793 at St. Andrew's Parish, Charleston. Edward and Catherine Turpin Weyman were the parents of Joseph Turpin Weyman who married Mary Elizabeth Maverick, daughter of Samuel Maverick (above).

V. SAMUEL AUGUSTUS (7/23/1803 - ??) married Mary Adams of Tuscaloosa. Alabama, on 8/4/1836 and had five children.
V. ANN CAROLINE (3/23/1805 - 9/2/1809) died of yellow fever in Charleston at the family home on Boundary Street.
V. ROBERT (9/15/1806, died the same night)
V. LYDIA ANN VAN WYCK (6/28/1814, Montpelier, SC - ??) married William Van Wyck at Pendleton Episcopal Church on 10/23/1833 and had children.
V. MARY ELIZABETH (12/23/1807 - 6/30/1843, Lauderdale County, Alabama, age 34) married (1) JOSEPH TURPIN WEYMAN (?? - 5/20/1834, Montpelier) on 3/21/1825. They had children Elizabeth Anderson, Augustus Maverick and Joseph Bossier Weyman. Mary Elizabeth married (2) Joseph Thompson of Lauderdale County, Alabama, on 10/14/1836 and had two children, Josephine Thompson and Samuel Maverick Thompson, born in 1837 and 1840 respectively.

Including Matthew Gayle, the Immigrant, Generations I-III
Generations IV-1X
Robert & Thomas Gayle
Matthias Gayle, George Gayle, John Gale, Philip Hunley Gayle, & Joshua Gayle
Josiah Gayle (1722 - 1794-95)
Matthew Gayle (ca. 1728 - By 1800)